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Armed Robbers Attempt to steal from Bitcoin ATM in England Failed

Armed Robbers Attempt to steal from Bitcoin ATM in England Failed submitted by dictom to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Saw my first Bitcoin ATM in Vegas (on vacation from England)

Saw my first Bitcoin ATM in Vegas (on vacation from England) submitted by ALockley91 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

BITCOIN OVER $10,000, $15K NEXT? - FATF CRYPTO RULES - BITCOIN DIGITALMINT ATMS - BANK OF ENGLAND DLT RIPPLE XRP - GALAXY DIGITAL CRYPTO OPTIONS CONTRACTS

BITCOIN OVER $10,000, $15K NEXT? - FATF CRYPTO RULES - BITCOIN DIGITALMINT ATMS - BANK OF ENGLAND DLT RIPPLE XRP - GALAXY DIGITAL CRYPTO OPTIONS CONTRACTS submitted by PrimeCoinz to ThinkingCrypto [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Over $10,000, $15K Next? - FATF Crypto Rules - Bitcoin Digitalmint ATMS - Bank Of England DLT Ripple XRP - Galaxy Digital Crypto Options Contracts

Bitcoin Over $10,000, $15K Next? - FATF Crypto Rules - Bitcoin Digitalmint ATMS - Bank Of England DLT Ripple XRP - Galaxy Digital Crypto Options Contracts submitted by PrimeCoinz to CryptoMarkets [link] [comments]

Saw my first Bitcoin ATM in Vegas (on vacation from England) /r/Bitcoin

Saw my first Bitcoin ATM in Vegas (on vacation from England) /Bitcoin submitted by ABitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Vaiex Bitcoin ATMs Popping up In London, England

Vaiex Bitcoin ATMs Popping up In London, England submitted by comeonbabes to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin ATM in england

submitted by VendettaWolf to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

VAIEX BITCOIN ATMS POPPING UP IN LONDON, ENGLAND

VAIEX BITCOIN ATMS POPPING UP IN LONDON, ENGLAND submitted by tonewsto to ToNewsTo [link] [comments]

Vaiex Bitcoin ATMs Popping up In London, England

Vaiex Bitcoin ATMs Popping up In London, England submitted by moon_drone to BetterBitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin-Friendly Countries

Bitcoin-Friendly Countries
Cryptocurrencies are a new asset that appeared only in 2009 with the first decentralized cryptocurrency – Bitcoin. The authorities of most countries haven’t managed yet how to develop its regulation, but there are already those who have introduced a strict prohibition against digital money, and those who have legalized cryptocurrencies in full.
by StealthEX
Today we prepared for you the list of some of the most Bitcoin-Friendly countries, where blockchain technology is closely intertwining with the life of ordinary people.

The United States of America

From the very beginning, the USA has been one of the pioneers of building the crypto-friendly society. Not surprisingly the United States has the largest number of crypto users and the largest number of Bitcoin’s ATMs in the world.
Today a lot of blockchain startups are working in Silicon Valley like BlockCypher, ThunderCore, Blockstream, CipherTrace, Cryptanna, MakerDAO, Coinbase and many others.

Canada

Canada can boast of two cities that are considered as “Bitcoin hubs” Toronto and Vancouver. Cryptocurrency itself is regulated by laws against money laundering and terrorism financing in Canada.
In this country there is a very lively crypto community and many blockchain startups like Decentral, Vanbex Group were launched here. Nowadays thousands of organizations accepting BTC and other cryptocurrencies for payment are located in Canada.

The United Kingdom

The UK is considered one of the world’s leading financial and innovation centers. Therefore, in this country, there are also numerous blockchain-related projects. The United Kingdom is sure that the popularization of a new payment solution is inevitable and now preparing for the massive adoption of cryptocurrencies. Nowadays you can easily order a pint of beer in some local pubs and pay for it using BTC.
Moreover, the Bank of England is closely monitoring cryptocurrency technologies and even asked the public to put forward ideas on how to improve their monetary constitution. Currently, Bitcoin is regarded as “private money”, where VAT is collected in the usual way from suppliers of any goods or services sold.

Netherlands

This country can be proud not only for being Bitcoin-friendly but also for having its own “Bitcoin City” called Arnhem. Here, almost everything can be purchased using crypto coins, including gas, housing, bicycles, and even dental services.
At the legislative level, cryptocurrencies are not yet regulated in accordance with the Dutch Financial Supervision Act, and as a result, numerous blockchain startups and even the Bitcoin Embassy in the center of Amsterdam have occurred.
In addition, the country’s banking sector, including ABN AMRO Bank and ING, is increasingly considering blockchain technology as a way to improve their own system and reduce costs. Netherlands is a regular participant in conferences regarding the development of Bitcoin.

Japan

Many people believe that this is the birthplace of the famous Satoshi Nakamoto – the creator of Bitcoin. The country is the first and only one that has a proper legal system regulating the trade in digital currencies.
Moreover, the authorities of this country are considering launching Japan’s own national cryptocurrency – digital Yen. Today Japan is of the largest cryptocurrency market.

Malta

In February 2018, the Government of Malta decided to support blockchain-related projects, cryptocurrencies, and ICOs. That’s why many companies are considering moving to this paradise blockchain-island. At the same time, Malta is one of the leaders in online gaming and there are many implemented projects that connect blockchain technology with the gaming industry.

Sweden

Sweden is among countries that want to eliminate paper money in favor of 100% digital currency. The Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority (Finansinspektionen) has legitimized the fast-growing crypto industry by publicly announcing Bitcoin (and other cryptocurrencies) as a means of payment.
Sweden is home to numerous blockchain-based startups, including Safello, Starflow, Norbloc, Strawpay.

Switzerland

Historically, Switzerland has always been famous for the level of its banking system and banking secrecy, so it is not surprising that the authorities of this country didn’t prohibit the circulation of digital currencies.
This country has become a kind of “tax haven” for cryptocurrencies. That’s why many blockchain startups started here and organize the headquarters of their business.

Estonia

This small country is also open to innovative technologies. The government implemented blockchain technology to the healthcare system, banking services and even management, allowing its citizens to be among the first to use municipal and state services via the Internet. With one of the highest levels of Internet penetration in the world, Estonia has a good opportunity to become cryptocurrency capital of Europe.
All the listed countries have demonstrated their hospitality to cryptocurrencies. But of course this is not the comprehensive list and as the crypto community will continue to grow the more countries will be ready to use the advantages of blockchain technology.
We will be delighted to know your thoughts on Bitcoin-friendly countries.
Hit your comments below.
Original article was posted on https://stealthex.io/blog/2020/05/22/bitcoin-friendly-countries/
submitted by Stealthex_io to u/Stealthex_io [link] [comments]

New Visa Debit Card Allows Crypto Deposits And Withdrawals

New Visa Debit Card Allows Crypto Deposits And Withdrawals

Bypassing Banks` Policies With The Use Of A Trastra Visa Card Allows Quick And Secure Cash Out Of Your Funds
Withdrawing funds from crypto exchanges to bank accounts is sometimes a major obstacle for crypto traders and holders. After exchanging your digital assets on exchange platforms or when finalizing a trading session online, you may want to convert your crypto and keep your financial possessions in EUR.
However, some European based banks will not allow you to cash-out your assets due to their internal policies. Crypto and blockchain-related websites, including trading platforms and exchanges, are often blacklisted by the banks. Moreover, if you have an account with such a bank, you are at risk of having your account disabled, and not having access to the services that your bank provides.
There is a way of bypassing banks` policies through the use of a TRASTRA Visa card and quickly and securely cashing out your funds into Euro. TRASTRA Visa gives you access to an internal crypto wallet, and all financial operations, including sending, receiving, purchasing, and exchanging, are being enabled.
The TRASTRA Visa card is currently available only to users based within the European Economic Area boundaries, and it supports five of the largest cryptocurrencies on the market – Bitcoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin and Ripple.

The New Way to Manage Your Crypto Wallet

TRASTRA Visa`s financial management tool is easy to use and takes seconds to complete whatever financial operation you may need to perform. By making a broad comparison between TRASTRA Visa and a regular Visa issued by a European bank, there may be features that the TRASTRA card is equipped with that outperform the traditional Visa cards.
In case of losing your card, it takes several seconds to deactivate your TRASTRA card. This will prevent third parties from withdrawing funds from your account. If you find your card, it takes seconds to re-active it again and use it as usual for your daily financial operations.
Push and email notifications will give you information on all account entries and transactions that were done through your account. By doing so, you can keep track on the inflow and outflow of all funds.
Funds can be sent almost instantly to a TRASTRA Visa card, which is typically a time-consuming activity if this is to be done through a bank. Similarly to what most of the modern Visa cards offer, TRASTRA`s card enables contactless payments to be made and can be done with the use of a smartphone or a smartwatch.
Most banks fail to provide a flexible and comprehensive set of tools for their clients, who are crypto savvy and want quick and secure transactions in and out of their bank accounts. Missing the right moment for converting and cashing out your digital assets can not only come at the cost of losing fractions of your profit, but you can actually end up with lower value than what you had at the beginning.
Eliminating the need to have an account with a bank, TRASTRA Visa provides convenient and very affordable ways for cashing out.
The TRASTRA Visa card is issued by Contis Financial Services Ltd registered in Wales and England and authorized by the Financial Conduct Authority to process e-payments. The company is also a principal member of Visa Europe.

Minimal Fees

Account registration, payment account creation, and the multi-crypto wallet activation are all free. The card costs €9 and delivery is free too. The time needed for your card to arrive is roughly about one week. Depositing or exchanging crypto to USD or EUR is also 100% free.
Sending crypto to an internal wallet is free whilst sending to an external wallet costs only 0.005ETH. You don't pay anything to load the card. Cash withdrawals from ATMs cost €1.25, ATM PIN change costs €0.40, and internal card to card transfers cost €0.20.
The maximum account balance is €5,000, while the daily spend limit is €1,300. The daily ATM withdrawal limit is currently capped at €300, and the daily POS transaction limit is €1,000.
TRASTRA is among the very few crypto debit cards that offer a fast way of converting your digital assets into fiat currency. It provides many crypto users with a secure platform where they can exchange their cryptocurrency to EUR, send funds to external wallets, buy crypto, and much more. Visit TRASTRA today and start managing your digital assets on the go.
submitted by Crypto_Browser to CryptoBrowser_EN [link] [comments]

M-N 1k-5k

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n00bs n3rdfusion N64WrestlingGames naath Nachrichten Nadine_Leopold NadineKerastas nagios nahuatl nail_art nailbiting nailedthelanding Nailpolish NaiTech nakedandafraid nameaserver Namecoin NameMyTF2Item NameNerdCirclejerk NamePuns namethatbook NamiMains Nanachi nanaimo nandovmovies nanJ Nannies nano NanoGrowery Nanoleaf nanomusheens nanotechnology Nantes NaomiKyle NaomiScott naomiwatts napa Naperville NapkinMemes Naples_FL napoli naranon narcissisticparents NarcissisticSpouses NarcoticsAnonymous Narduchita NarFFL Narnia NarniaMemes Naruto_Memes NarutoAkiden NarutoAnime NarutoNinjaStorm NarutoSakuga NarutoXBorutoNV nas NASA_News nasalsnuff NASCARCollectors NasDANQ nashvillebuyandsell Nashvilleevents NashvilleJobs NashvilleSC NashvilleTV NASLSoccer nasusmains Nat1 Natalia_Deliah Natalia_Garibotto Natalie_vs_Scarlett nataliebrooksx nataliehadek NatalieMariduena NatalieR NatalieRoser NatashaOakley nathanfielder NathanFillion Nationalism NationalParkPorn NationalPhotoSubs 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NexonDarknessRises Nexplanon NextCarGame nextdoor nextelderscrolls NextOrder Nexus10 Nexus9 nexusearth nexusmods Nexusography nexusplayer nexybit NFC NFCEast nffc NFKRZ NFL2go nfl__stream nfl__streams nfl_games nfl_live_streams_free nfl_livestream_ nfl_livestream_free nfl_streams_hd nfl_streams_live_ nfl_super_bowl NFLDRAFT NFLFandom NFLFantasy NFLFilms NFLFootballGamesToday nflgameslive NFLGameUpdate nfllivestream_ NFLLiveStreamingCBS NFLLiveStreamingFOX NFLNoobs NFLOffTopic NFLReplay nflsgame NFLstatheads nflstream_ nflstream_free nflstream_live nflstreams_ nflstreams_free nflstreams_live_ NFLStreamUpdate nflsuperbowlfree nflsuperbowls nfrealmusic nfrstream nginx NhiTran NHL17HUT NHL18 NHL19 nhl_streams NHLChampionshipBelt NHLstream NHRA nhs niagara NibbaTV Nicaragua niceb8m8 NiceCatch nicedoggos nicegays Nicegirlstories niceguy niceguysDiscussion niceguystories NiceLegs NiceSaveOuija niceyes NichameleonCosplay NichtDieTagespresse nick NickCave nickelodeon NickyWhelan nicolapeltz nicolascage NicoleArbour NicoleLZ NicoleMarieJeanNMJ NicoleMejia nicolenixon NicoleScherzinger NicoleThornedab niconiconi NICUParents NidaleeMains NiennaJade NieRAutomataGame Nievamara Nigahiga Nigeria nightblade nightdriving nightmare NightmareBeforeXmas NightmareNewYork Nightmares nightmemes NightMusic nightphotography nightwalk nightwish nihilisms nihongo Nijmegen NikaidouSaki nikkibella NikkiBlackketter NikkiCo65 Nilesy nim Nimiq nincirclejerk ninemuses Ninja Ninjago NinjasHyper ninjawarrior NinoNakano Nintendeals Nintendo3DS nintendo64 Nintendo_NX NintendoDS Nintendogs NintendoKaren nintendolabo NintendoStitch NintendoSwitchBoxArt NintendoSwitchDesigns NintendoSwitchIndie NinthWorldProblems nintype nippleshadows nipponichi NipseyHussle nirvannatheband nissanfrontier nissanleaf NISTControls NitroToken NIU NixOS NixPlatform NJ_Swingers njbeer NJGuns njhiking NJr4r NJTech nlpclass NLSS NLTP NMMNG NMS_Bases NMS_Federation NMS_Zoology NMSPortals NNNNNNNEEEEEEEEEEEEWS no 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nonononoyesWTF nonoyes Nonprofit_Jobs nonsenselocker nonstopknight NoNut19 Nonviolence noobmaster69 NoobsOfTheAncient Noobtube nook nootropic_deals NootropicResearch NoPee noplastic nopuns norcal Nordichistorymemes NordicSkinCare NordicUnion NORDVEI NormalDayInSweden normanok NormanReedus normiememes NORML Norsemen NorskFotball NorthAmerican northampton NorthCarolina4Sanders northcounty northshore Northwestern NoRules norwayonreddit NorwegianForestCats Norwich NorwichCity Noses nosgoth nosIeep nosleep_irl nosleepfinder NosleepIndex NoSleepInterviews NoSleepReruns NoSleepSleuths NoSleepVideos nosleepworkshops nOSplatform nosql nostalgiacritic NostalgiaMusic NoStepOnSnek Not_Quite_Right NotableUpcomingEvents NotAboutYou notaglobe notalodeon notalwaysright NotaMethAddict notanimemaru NoTap notaperfectfit NotBirdsWithArms Notchcels notcirclejerk notcosplaygirls note8 Notflix notfunny NothingButThieves nothingnowhere NotHowDicksWork nothowgayswork nothowphoneswork notificationgore NoTillGrowery NotionSo notkayfabenews notmeirl notopbutok notpopping notredamefootball notsafeforweiss NotSteveIrwin notthebabylonbee notthebeaverton notthethickofit NotTrending notwholesomeanymore NoU novajobs novalaunchersetups novarent novationcircuit NoveltyAccounts Nowhere_eternity nowhisper nowiknow nowontennis noxappplayer NPB NPC NPCMemes NPCtavern NPD NPERproject npm nprplanetmoney NPSL nqmod Nr2003 nra nsa NSCollectors nsfNSFW NSFW911 nsfw_brat NSFW_SplitDepthGIFS nsfwbabesnude NSFWfun Nsfwhumour nspire nsw nswf NSWF_amatuer NSWFHardcore ntbdbiwdfta ntnu NTSB_database NTU NuclearBusiness nuclearwar nuclearweapons Nudah NudeBase nudeceleb Nuderoast nudibranch nudist_loving nudistpornbeach NudistsGoneWild nugswap nujijinactie nukedbywords nukedfromorbit NukeMeFromOrbit NukeVFX nukleus null number26bank numberphile numberwang numerai numerical numerology numismatics numismatology nunavut nunumains NurdRage NurseJackie NurseJoyProject nursepractitioner Nurses nursingmemes nursingschool NursingSkills nus nutanix NutritionFacts NVC nvidiots nwi NWSL nxtcoin NXThemes nxtwrestling nyancoins nyannyancosplay nycART nycbeer NYCC nycfilmmakers nycfood nycgaybros nycgaymers nycHistory nycstreetart nyctech NYCtrees NYguns NYList NYrap nyspolitics nytimes NYTO NYXL nyxnyxnyx NZBitcoin NZCirclejerk nzpolitics NZTrees
submitted by j259awesome to u/j259awesome [link] [comments]

Monero ATMs: Massachusetts (and more!)

Just a shameless promotion here for a moment. :)
There are only 34 crypto ATMs in the USA that support Monero, and we have launched 4 (of the 34) in the past two months. We are launching a new buy and sell machine tomorrow night in Wrentham, MA which will be our fifth machine, and the 35th in the country. Hopefully many more soon too.
Anyone in New England who is interested in purchasing XMR with cash can do so at any of our four locations here: https://coinmover.com/locations/
If you're interested or know anyone who wants to host a terminal at a retail location, fill out the form here: https://coinmover.com/host/ -- depending on the logistics and the state, we can talk about a possible deal on commission from gross revenue of the machine.
I'm posting this also to open my operation up to any questions about the machines, how they work, what we do, and generally engage with the Monero community. Monero has always been a passion of mine for a couple years and supporting it on our machines was second only to bitcoin. :)
Note: Some of our machines support selling crypto (BTC and LTC) but the back-end software doesn't yet support XMR sells, only buys. It's open source, so getting someone to add in sell functionality would be awesome. I posted about it here before.

CoinMover Twitter: https://twitter.com/Coin_Mover
submitted by CoinMover to Monero [link] [comments]

[ECON] The Great Redemption

[M] Apologies for reposting this, but on my end the post kept disappearing for some reason, and I doubt anyone else could see it.
—————
[Central Bank of Chile](https://www.bcentral.cl/web/central-bank-of-chile/home), Augustinas 1180, Santiago de Chile

The Road to Redemption

January 9th, 2022
Following the collapse of Lehman Brothers on September 15th, 2008, the international financial fabric was torn apart into an existential crisis. Threatened by the "Great Recession", the global ruling class was forced into taking decisive action. Most Governments opted to bail out the banks, driven by their mantra of "too big to fail". Elsewhere, financial authorities and Central Banks opted to do the unthinkable by letting the market collapse.
In the wake of the global recession, a plethora of financial reforms were carried out. Some economists revisited the concept of doing away with fractional reserve banking altogether, with Iceland nearly leading the way. Most conventional politicians, meanwhile, opted to enact some of the most complex regulatory legislation in financial history, adding over eleven thousand pages to the bureaucratic burdern in the process.In the meantime, the regular "bloke on the street" had finally had enough and clamoured for change.
Today, nearly fifteen years later, "recession" has once again become the name of the game. With the European economy entering a state of contraction and German commercial banks facing imminent collapse, the global economic system is on the edge of being subjected to the worst economic crisis in recorded history. And while the Bundestag has already **recommitted itself to a bailout, others have yet to respond to the impending financial meltdown.
Although Chile and the rest of Latin America are somewhat isolated and thus shielded from the "European dumpster fire", the Government is keenly aware that the situation could quickly take a turn for the worse. As such, the Ministry of Finance and the Central Bank of Chile have decided to embark on what they call "The Great Redemption". And although financial reform is contrary to the Allende Administration's strictly interim nature of governance, the President believes that the State has an inherently entrenched obligation to protect its citizens from suffering at the hands of the financial system. "The old continent has finally met its end", an increasingly aged and fragile Allende told the New York Times. "And in this new world order, Chile leads the way."

Hard-coded Monetarism

Following the global financial and subsequent European sovereign debt crisis, the European Central Bank embarked on a "Quantitative Easing" program of monumental proportions. While "Super Mario's" money printing machine allowed for Keynesian contra-cyclical spending, the long-term consequences of the ECB's continued buyback program have seemingly far outstripped the benefits. Negative interest rates have become standard practice across the Eurozone, and Christine Lagarde's continuation of her predecessor's policies has effectively led to the loss of the continent's ability to undertake monetary policy. Meanwhile, "inflation's ugly twin" is threatening to put a halt to consumer spending, potentially throwing more oil on the continental-sized dumpster fire.

Towards a Cashless Society

Following the introduction of Bitcon in the wake of the global financial crisis, digital cryptocurrencies have promised to dramatically reshape our moodern conception of money. After having watched privately-sanctioned digital coinage wax and wane for several years, Central Bankers across the globe have increasingly started calling for a public alternative. The dangers of private digital fiat money became abundantly clear when social media behemoth Facebook announced it would issue its own global cryptocurrency), with the Bank for International Settlements publicly denouncing the notion of digital currency being monopolised by private actors. The French and German Governments quickly followed suit, striking a major blow to the Libra.

Privatisation with a Human Face

Founded in 1953 by President Carloz Ibañez del Campo, the Bank of Chilean State is the country's third largest bank. BancoEstado has been ranked Latin America's safest bank since 2012, and the 48th safest bank in the world and 6th in the Southern Hemisphere since 2015. BancoEstado - whicich is rated AA3 by Moody's - is furthermore the only bank to service all of the country's communes, while being the sole financial service provider in theseventy-seven of the most remote Chilean localities.

Premium Insurance

Other Measures

The Chilean Government hopes - above all - that its willingness to undertake radical reforms will serve to inspire Euuropean Governments and Central Banks into being ambitious in their response to the continet's economic issues. At the same time, the Chilean financial sector is expected to become one of the world's most innovative, competitive and dynamic payments markets, continuing the country's reputation as Latin America's "Shining Star".Only time will tell whether or not these reforms will actually bear their fruits.

Footnotes

  • 1 - Based on a quote by Milton Friedman.
  • 2 - Customer support, mobile and internet banking, etc
  • 3 - I based this figure on the 2018 Annual Report, where on page 46 it states that the bank's total consolidated assets total more than $40 billion dollars. The figures I gave in terms of revenue are based on the subsequent economic growth, the willingness of Chileans to gain ownership of the bank for nationalist reasons, and on thee fact that both Peter_j_ and ForestChapel valued the bank at $50 billion in previous seasons. Please feel free to provide me with imput as I'm not very well vested in corporate valuations.
  • 5 - This is based on the so-called Bibby Plan, which is briefly described on the deposit insurance wikipedia page, as well as on basic econoics.
  • 6 - Regulations regarding the creation of a new bank will be adressed in a separate post.
[M] Much of the stuff in this post is based on recommendations by the Sustainable Finance Lab, a high profile Dutch financial think tank. As such, some of the stuff in this post might be a bit out of place considering the vastly different nature of the Dutch financial sector. Most of it should still be universally applicable, though.
submitted by TheForgottenVanGogh to GlobalPowers [link] [comments]

World History Timeline of Events Leading up to Bitcoin - In the Making

A (live/editable) timeline of historical events directly or indirectly related to the creation of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies
*still workin' on this so check back later and more will be added, if you have any suggested dates/events feel free to lemme know...
This timeline includes dates pertaining to:
Ancient Bartering – first recorded in Egypt (resources, services...) – doesn’t scale
Tally sticks were used, making notches in bones or wood, as a form of money of account
9000-6000 BC Livestock considered the first form of currency
c3200 BC Clay tablets used in Uruk (Iraq) for accounting (believed to be the earliest form of writing)
3000 BC Grain is used as a currency, measured out in Shekels
3000 BC Banking developed in Mesopotamia
3000 BC? Punches used to stamp symbols on coins were a precursor to the printing press and modern coins
? BC Since ancient Persia and all the way up until the invention and expansion of the telegraph Homing Pigeons were used to carry messages
2000 BC Merchants in Assyria, India and Sumeria lent grain to farmers and traders as a precursor to banks
1700 BC In Babylon at the time of Hammurabi, in the 18th century BC, there are records of loans made by the priests of the temple.
1200 BC Shell money first used in China
1000-600 BC Crude metal coins first appear in China
640 BC Precious metal coins – Gold & Silver first used in ancient Lydia and coastal Greek cities featuring face to face heads of a bull and a lion – first official minted currency made from electrum, a mixture of gold and silver
600-500 BC Atbash Cipher
A substitution Cipher used by ancient Hebrew scholars mapping the alphabet in reverse, for example, in English an A would be a Z, B a Y etc.
400 BC Skytale used by Sparta
474 BC Hundreds of gold coins from this era were discovered in Rome in 2018
350 BC Greek hydraulic semaphore system, an optical communication system developed by Aeneas Tacticus.
c200 BC Polybius Square
??? Wealthy stored coins in temples, where priests also lent them out
??? Rome was the first to create banking institutions apart from temples
118 BC First banknote in the form of 1 foot sq pieces of white deerskin
100-1 AD Caesar Cipher
193 Aureus, a gold coin of ancient Rome, minted by Septimius Severus
324 Solidus, pure gold coin, minted under Constantine’s rule, lasted until the late 8th century
600s Paper currency first developed in Tang Dynasty China during the 7th century, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, during the Song Dynasty, 960–1279
c757–796 Silver pennies based on the Roman denarius became the staple coin of Mercia in Great Britain around the time of King Offa
806 First paper banknotes used in China but isn’t widely accepted in China until 960
1024 The first series of standard government notes were issued in 1024 with denominations like 1 guàn (貫, or 700 wén), 1 mín (緡, or 1000 wén), up to 10 guàn. In 1039 only banknotes of 5 guàn and 10 guàn were issued, and in 1068 a denomination of 1 guàn was introduced which became forty percent of all circulating Jiaozi banknotes.
1040 The first movable type printer was invented in China and made of porcelain
? Some of the earliest forms of long distance communication were drums used by Native Africans and smoke signals used by Native Americans and Chinese
1088 Movable type in Song Dynasty China
1120 By the 1120s the central government officially stepped in and produced their own state-issued paper money (using woodblock printing)
1150 The Knights Templar issued bank notes to pilgrims. Pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value of their deposit, then used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value.
1200s-1300s During the 13th century bankers from north Italy, collectively known as Lombards, gradually replace the Jews in their traditional role as money-lenders to the rich and powerful. – Florence, Venice and Genoa - The Bardi and Peruzzi Families dominated banking in 14th century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe
1200 By the time Marco Polo visited China they’d move from coins to paper money, who introduced the concept to Europe. An inscription warned, "All counterfeiters will be decapitated." Before the use of paper, the Chinese used coins that were circular, with a rectangular hole in the middle. Several coins could be strung together on a rope. Merchants in China, if they became rich enough, found that their strings of coins were too heavy to carry around easily. To solve this problem, coins were often left with a trustworthy person, and the merchant was given a slip of paper recording how much money they had with that person. Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan Dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made Into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country."
1252 Florin minted in Florence, becomes the hard currency of its day helping Florence thrive economically
1340 Double-entry bookkeeping - The clerk keeping the accounts for the Genoese firm of Massari painstakingly fills in the ledger for the year 1340.
1397 Medici Bank established
1450 Johannes Gutenberg builds the printing press – printed words no longer just for the rich
1455 Paper money disappears from China
1466 Polyalphabetic Cipher
1466 Rotating cipher disks – Vatican – greatest crypto invention in 1000 yrs – the first system to challenge frequency analysis
1466 First known mechanical cipher machine
1472 The oldest bank still in existence founded, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, headquartered in Siena, Italy
1494 Double-entry bookkeeping system codified by Luca Pacioli
1535 Wampum, a form of currency used by Native Americans, a string of beads made from clamshells, is first document.
1553 Vigenere Cipher
1557 Phillip II of Spain managed to burden his kingdom with so much debt (as the result of several pointless wars) that he caused the world's first national bankruptcy — as well as the world's second, third and fourth, in rapid succession.
1577 Newspaper in Korea
1586 The Babington Plot
1590 Cabinet Noir was established in France. Its mission was to open, read and reseal letters, and great expertise was developed in the restoration of broken seals. In the knowledge that mail was being opened, correspondents began to develop systems to encrypt and decrypt their letters. The breaking of these codes gave birth to modern systematic scientific code breaking.
1600s Promissory banknotes began in London
1600s By the early 17th century banking begins also to exist in its modern sense - as a commercial service for customers rather than kings. – Late 17th century we see cheques slowly gains acceptance
The total of the money left on deposit by a bank's customers is a large sum, only a fraction of which is usually required for withdrawals. A proportion of the rest can be lent out at interest, bringing profit to the bank. When the customers later come to realize this hidden value of their unused funds, the bank's profit becomes the difference between the rates of interest paid to depositors and demanded from debtors.
The transformation from moneylenders into private banks is a gradual one during the 17th and 18th centuries. In England it is achieved by various families of goldsmiths who early in the period accept money on deposit purely for safe-keeping. Then they begin to lend some of it out. Finally, by the 18th century, they make banking their business in place of their original craft as goldsmiths.
1605 Newspaper in Straussburg
c1627 Great Cipher
1637 Wampum is declared as legal tender in the U.S. (where we got the slang word “clams” for money)
1656 Johan Palmstruch establishes the Stockholm Banco
1661 Paper Currency reappears in Europe, soon became common - The goldsmith-bankers of London began to give out the receipts as payable to the bearer of the document rather than the original depositor
1661 Palmstruch issues credit notes which can be exchanged, on presentation to his bank, for a stated number of silver coins
1666 Stockholms Banco, the predecessor to the Central Bank of Sweden issues the first paper money in Europe. Soon went bankrupt for printing too much money.
1667 He issues more notes than his bank can afford to redeem with silver and winds up in disgrace, facing a death penalty (commuted to imprisonment) for fraud.
1668 Bank of Sweden – today the 2nd oldest surviving bank
1694 First Central Bank established in the UK was the first bank to initiate the permanent issue of banknotes
Served as model for most modern central banks.
The modern banknote rests on the assumption that money is determined by a social and legal consensus. A gold coin's value is simply a reflection of the supply and demand mechanism of a society exchanging goods in a free market, as opposed to stemming from any intrinsic property of the metal. By the late 17th century, this new conceptual outlook helped to stimulate the issue of banknotes.
1700s Throughout the commercially energetic 18th century there are frequent further experiments with bank notes - deriving from a recognized need to expand the currency supply beyond the availability of precious metals.
1710 Physiocracy
1712 First commercial steam engine
1717 Master of the Royal Mint Sir Isaac Newton established a new mint ratio between silver and gold that had the effect of driving silver out of circulation (bimetalism) and putting Britain on a gold standard.
1735 Classical Economics – markets regulate themselves when free of intervention
1744 Mayer Amschel Rothschild, Founder of the Rothschild Banking Empire, is Born in Frankfurt, Germany
Mayer Amschel Rothschild extended his banking empire across Europe by carefully placing his five sons in key positions. They set up banks in Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Naples, and Paris. By the mid 1800’s they dominated the banking industry, lending to governments around the world and people such as the Vanderbilts, Carnegies, and Cecil Rhodes.
1745 There was a gradual move toward the issuance of fixed denomination notes in England standardized printed notes ranging from £20 to £1,000 were being printed.
1748 First recorded use of the word buck for a dollar, stemming from the Colonial period in America when buck skins were commonly traded
1757 Colonial Scrip Issued in US
1760s Mayer Amschel Rothschild establishes his banking business
1769 First steam powered car
1775-1938 US Diplomatic Codes & Ciphers by Ralph E Weber used – problems were security and distribution
1776 American Independence
1776 Adam Smith’s Invisible Hand theory helped bankers and money-lenders limit government interference in the banking sector
1781 The Bank of North America was a private bank first adopted created the US Nation's first de facto central bank. When shares in the bank were sold to the public, the Bank of North America became the country's first initial public offering. It lasted less than ten years.
1783 First steamboat
1791 Congress Creates the First US Bank – A Private Company, Partly Owned by Foreigners – to Handle the Financial Needs of the New Central Government. First Bank of the United States, a National bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, it was not renewed in 1811.
Previously, the 13 states had their own banks, currencies and financial institutions, which had an average lifespan of about 5 years.
1792 First optical telegraph invented where towers with telescopes were dispersed across France 12-25 km apart, relaying signals according to positions of arms extended from the top of the towers.
1795 Thomas Jefferson invents the Jefferson Disk Cipher or Wheel Cipher
1797 to 1821 Restriction Period by England of trading banknotes for silver during Napoleonic Wars
1797 Currency Crisis
Although the Bank was originally a private institution, by the end of the 18th century it was increasingly being regarded as a public authority with civic responsibility toward the upkeep of a healthy financial system.
1799 First paper machine
1800 Banque de France – France’s central bank opens to try to improve financing of the war
1800 Invention of the battery
1801 Rotchschild Dynasty begins in Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire – established international banking family through his 5 sons who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples
1804 Steam locomotive
1807 Internal combustion engine and automobile
1807 Robert Fulton expands water transportation and trade with the workable steamboat.
1809 Telegraphy
1811 First powered printing press, also first to use a cylinder
1816 The Privately Owned Second Bank of the US was Chartered – It Served as the Main Depository for Government Revenue, Making it a Highly Profitable Bank – charter not renewed in 1836
1816 The first working telegraph was built using static electricity
1816 Gold becomes the official standard of value in England
1820 Industrial Revolution
c1820 Neoclassical Economics
1821 British gov introduces the gold standard - With governments issuing the bank notes, the inherent danger is no longer bankruptcy but inflation.
1822 Charles Babbage, considered the "father of the computer", begins building the first programmable mechanical computer.
1832 Andrew Jackson Campaigns Against the 2nd Bank of the US and Vetoes Bank Charter Renewal
Andrew Jackson was skeptical of the central banking system and believed it gave too few men too much power and caused inflation. He was also a proponent of gold and silver and an outspoken opponent of the 2nd National Bank. The Charter expired in 1836.
1833 President Jackson Issues Executive Order to Stop Depositing Government Funds Into Bank of US
By September 1833, government funds were being deposited into state chartered banks.
1833-1837 Manufactured “boom” created by central bankers – money supply Increases 84%, Spurred by the 2nd Bank of the US
The total money supply rose from $150 million to $267 million
1835 Jackson Escapes Assassination. Assassin misfired twice.
1837-1862 The “Free Banking Era” there was no formal central bank in the US, and banks issued their own notes again
1838 First Telegram sent using Morse Code across 3 km, in 1844 he sent a message across 71 km from Washington DC to Baltimore.
1843 Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm for computing
1844 Modern central bank of England established - meaning only the central bank of England could issue banknotes – prior to that commercial banks could issue their own and were the primary form of currency throughout England
the Bank of England was restricted to issue new banknotes only if they were 100% backed by gold or up to £14 million in government debt.
1848 Communist Manifesto
1850 The first undersea telegraphic communications cable connected France in England after latex produced from the sap of the Palaquium gutta tree in 1845 was proposed as insulation for the underwater cables.
1852 Many countries in Europe build telegram networks, however post remained the primary means of communication to distant countries.
1855 In England fully printed notes that did not require the name of the payee and the cashier's signature first appeared
1855 The printing telegraph made it possible for a machine with 26 alphabetic keys to print the messages automatically and was soon adopted worldwide.
1856 Belgian engineer Charles Bourseul proposed telephony
1856 The Atlantic Telegraph company was formed in London to stretch a commercial telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean, completed in 1866.
1860 The Pony Express was founded, able to deliver mail of wealthy individuals or government officials from coast to coast in 10 days.
1861 The East coast was connected to the West when Western Union completed the transcontinental telegraph line, putting an end to unprofitable The Pony Express.
1862-1863 First US banknotes - Lincoln Over Rules Debt-Based Money and Issues Greenbacks to Fund Civil War
Bankers would only lend the government money under certain conditions and at high interest rates, so Lincoln issued his own currency – “greenbacks” – through the US Treasury, and made them legal tender. His soldiers went on to win the war, followed by great economic expansion.
1863 to 1932 “National Banking Era” Commercial banks in the United States had legally issued banknotes before there was a national currency; however, these became subject to government authorization from 1863 to 1932
1864 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen founded the first rural credit union in Heddesdorf (now part of Neuwied) in Germany. By the time of Raiffeisen's death in 1888, credit unions had spread to Italy, France, the Netherlands, England, Austria, and other nations
1870 Long-distance telegraph lines connected Britain and India.
c1871 Marginalism - The doctrines of marginalism and the Marginal Revolution are often interpreted as a response to the rise of the worker's movement, Marxian economics and the earlier (Ricardian) socialist theories of the exploitation of labour.
1871 Carl Menger’s Principles of Economics – Austrian School
1872 Marx’s Das Capital
1872 Australia becomes the first nation to be connected to the rest of the world via submarine telegraph cables.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone, first called the electric speech machine – revolutionized communication
1877 Thomas Edison – Phonograph
1878 Western Union, the leading telegraph provider of the U.S., begins to lose out to the telephone technology of the National Bell Telephone Company.
1881 President James Garfield, Staunch Proponent of “Honest Money” Backed by Gold and Silver, was Assassinated
Garfield opposed fiat currency (money that was not backed by any physical object). He had the second shortest Presidency in history.
1882 First description of the one-time pad
1886 First gas powered car
1888 Ballpoint pen
1892 Cinematograph
1895 System of wireless communication using radio waves
1896 First successful intercontinental telegram
1898 Polyethylene
1899 Nickel-cadmium battery
1907 Banking Panic of 1907
The New York Stock Exchange dropped dramatically as everyone tried to get their money out of the banks at the same time across the nation. This banking panic spurred debate for banking reform. JP Morgan and others gathered to create an image of concern and stability in the face of the panic, which eventually led to the formation of the Federal Reserve. The founders of the Federal Reserve pretended like the bankers were opposed to the idea of its formation in order to mislead the public into believing that the Federal Reserve would help to regulate bankers when in fact it really gave even more power to private bankers, but in a less transparent way.
1908 St Mary’s Bank – first credit union in US
1908 JP Morgan Associate and Rockefeller Relative Nelson Aldrich Heads New National Monetary Commission
Senate Republican leader, Nelson Aldrich, heads the new National Monetary Commission that was created to study the cause of the banking panic. Aldrich had close ties with J.P. Morgan and his daughter married John D. Rockefeller.
1910 Bankers Meet Secretly on Jekyll Island to Draft Federal Reserve Banking Legislation
Over the course of a week, some of the nation’s most powerful bankers met secretly off the coast of Georgia, drafting a proposal for a private Central Banking system.
1913 Federal Reserve Act Passed
Two days before Christmas, while many members of Congress were away on vacation, the Federal Reserve Act was passed, creating the Central banking system we have today, originally with gold backed Federal Reserve Notes. It was based on the Aldrich plan drafted on Jekyll Island and gave private bankers supreme authority over the economy. They are now able to create money out of nothing (and loan it out at interest), make decisions without government approval, and control the amount of money in circulation.
1913 Income tax established -16th Amendment Ratified
Taxes ensured that citizens would cover the payment of debt due to the Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, which was also created in 1913.The 16th Amendment stated: “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.”
1914 November, Federal Reserve Banks Open
JP Morgan and Co. Profits from Financing both sides of War and Purchasing Weapons
J.P. Morgan and Co. made a deal with the Bank of England to give them a monopoly on underwriting war bonds for the UK and France. They also invested in the suppliers of war equipment to Britain and France.
1914 WWI
1917 Teletype cipher
1917 The one-time pad
1917 Zimmerman Telegram intercepted and decoded by Room 40, the cryptanalysis department of the British Military during WWI.
1918 GB returns to gold standard post-war but it didn’t work out
1919 First rotor machine, an electro-mechanical stream ciphering and decrypting machine.
1919 Founding of The Cipher Bureau, Poland’s intelligence and cryptography agency.
1919-1929 The Black Chamber, a forerunner of the NSA, was the first U.S. cryptanalytic organization. Worked with the telegraph company Western Union to illegally acquire foreign communications of foreign embassies and representatives. It was shut down in 1929 as funding was removed after it was deemed unethical to intercept private domestic radio signals.
1920s Department stores, hotel chains and service staions begin offering customers charge cards
1921-1929 The “Roaring 20’s” – The Federal Reserve Floods the Economy with Cash and Credit
From 1921 to 1929 the Federal Reserve increased the money supply by $28 billion, almost a 62% increase over an eight-year period.[3] This artificially created another “boom”.
1927 Quartz clock
1928 First experimental Television broadcast in the US.
1929 Federal Reserve Contracts the Money Supply
In 1929, the Federal Reserve began to pull money out of circulation as loans were paid back. They created a “bust” which was inevitable after issuing so much credit in the years before. The Federal Reserve’s actions triggered the banking crisis, which led to the Great Depression.
1929 October 24, “Black Thursday”, Stock Market Crash
The most devastating stock market crash in history. Billions of dollars in value were consolidated into the private banker’s hands at the expense of everyone else.
1930s The Great Depression marked the end of the gold standard
1931 German Enigma machines attained and reconstructed.
1932 Turbo jet engine patented
1933 SEC founded - passed the Glass–Steagall Act, which separated investment banking and commercial banking. This was to avoid more risky investment banking activities from ever again causing commercial bank failures.
1933 FM Radio
1933 Germany begins Telex, a network of teleprinters sending and receiving text based messages. Post WWII Telex networks began to spread around the world.
1936 Austrian engineer Paul Eisler invented Printed circuit board
1936 Beginning of the Keynesian Revolution
1937 Typex, British encryption machines which were upgraded versions of Enigma machines.
1906 Teletypewriters
1927 Founding of highly secret and unofficial Signal Intelligence Service, SIS, the U.S. Army’s codebreaking division.
1937 Made illegal for Americans to own gold
1938 Z1 built by Konrad Zuse is the first freely programmable computer in the world.
1939 WWII – decline of the gold standard which greatly restricted policy making
1939-45 Codetalkers - The Navajo code is the only spoken military code never to have been deciphered - "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima."—Howard Connor
1940 Modems
1942 Deciphering Japanese coded messages leads to a turning point victory for the U.S. in WWII.
1943 At Bletchley Park, Alan Turing and team build a specialized cipher-breaking machine called Heath Robinson.
1943 Colossus computer built in London to crack the German Lorenz cipher.
1944 Bretton Woods – convenient after the US had most of the gold
1945 Manhattan Project – Atom Bomb
1945 Transatlantic telephone cable
1945 Claude E. Shannon published "A mathematical theory of cryptography", commonly accepted as the starting point for development of modern cryptography.
C1946 Crypto Wars begin and last to this day
1946 Charg-it card created by John C Biggins
1948 Atomic clock
1948 Claude Shannon writes a paper that establishes the mathematical basis of information theory
1949 Info theorist Claude Shannon asks “What does an ideal cipher look like?” – one time pad – what if the keys are not truly random
1950 First credit card released by the Diners Club, able to be used in 20 restaurants in NYC
1951 NSA, National Security Agency founded and creates the KL-7, an off-line rotor encryption machine
1952 First thermonuclear weapon
1953 First videotape recorder
1953 Term “Hash” first used meaning to “chop” or “make a mess” out of something
1954 Atomic Energy Act (no mention of crypto)
1957 The NSA begins producing ROMOLUS encryption machines, soon to be used by NATO
1957 First PC – IBM
1957 First Satellite – Sputnik 1
1958 Western Union begins building a nationwide Telex network in the U.S.
1960s Machine readable codes were added to the bottom of cheques in MICR format, which speeded up the clearing and sorting process
1960s Financial organizations were beginning to require strong commercial encryption on the rapidly growing field of wired money transfer.
1961 Electronic clock
1963 June 4, Kennedy Issued an Executive Order (11110) that Authorized the US Treasury to Issue Silver Certificates, Threatening the Federal Reserve’s Monopoly on Money
This government issued currency would bypass the governments need to borrow from bankers at interest.
1963 Electronic calculator
1963 Nov. 22, Kennedy Assassinated
1963 Johnson Reverses Kennedy’s Banking Rule and Restores Power to the Federal Reserve
1964 8-Track
1964 LAN, Local Area Networks adapters
1965 Moore’s Law by CEO of Intel Gordon Moore observes that the number of components per integrated circuit doubles every year, and projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade. In 1975 he revised it to every two years.
1967 First ATM installed at Barclay’s Bank in London
1968 Cassette Player introduced
1969 First connections of ARPANET, predecessor of the internet, are made. started – SF, SB, UCLA, Utah (now Darpa) – made to stay ahead of the Soviets – there were other networks being built around the world but it was very hard to connect them – CERN in Europe
1970s Stagflation – unemployment + inflation, which Keynesian theory could not explain
1970s Business/commercial applications for Crypto emerge – prior to this time it was militarily used – ATMs 1st got people thinking about commercial applications of cryptography – data being sent over telephone lines
1970s The public developments of the 1970s broke the near monopoly on high quality cryptography held by government organizations.
Use of checks increased in 70s – bringing about ACH
One way functions...
A few companies began selling access to private networks – but weren’t allowed to connect to the internet – business and universities using Arpanet had no commercial traffic – internet was used for research, not for commerce or advertising
1970 Railroads threatened by the growing popularity of air travel. Penn Central Railroad declares bankruptcy resulting in a $3.2 billion bailout
1970 Conjugate coding used in an attempt to design “money physically impossible to counterfeit”
1971 The US officially removes the gold standard
1971 Email invented
1971 Email
1971 First microcomputer on a chip
1971 Lockheed Bailout - $1.4 billion – Lockheed was a major government defense contractor
1972 First programmable word processor
1972 First video game console
1973 SWIFT established
1973 Ethernet invented, standardized in ‘83
1973 Mobile phone
1973 First commercial GUI – Xerox Alto
1973 First touchscreen
1973 Emails made up more than ¾ of ARPANET’s packets – people had to keep a map of the network by their desk – so DNS was created
1974 A protocol for packet network intercommunication – TCP/IP – Cerf and Kahn
1974 Franklin National Bank Bailout - $1.5 billion (valued at that time) - At the time, it was the largest bank failure in US history
1975 New York City Bailout - $9.4 billion – NYC was overextended
1975 W DES - meant that commercial uses of high quality encryption would become common, and serious problems of export control began to arise.
1975 DES, Data Encryption Standard developed at IBM, seeking to develop secure electronic communications for banks and large financial organizations. DES was the first publicly accessible cipher to be 'blessed' by a national agency such as the NSA. Its release stimulated an explosion of public and academic interest in cryptography.
1975 Digital camera
1975 Altair 8800 sparks the microprocessor revolution
1976 Bretton Woods ratified (lasted 30 years) – by 80’s all nations were using floating currencies
1976 New Directions in Cryptography published by Diffie & Hellman – this terrified Fort Meade – previously this technique was classified, now it’s public
1976 Apple I Computer – Steve Wozniak
1976 Asymmetric key cryptosystem published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman.
1976 Hellman and Diffie publish New Directions in Cryptography, introducing a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, contributing much to solving key distribution one of the fundamental problems of cryptography. It brought about the almost immediate public development of asymmetric key algorithms. - where people can have 2 sets of keys, public and private
1977 Diffie & Hellman receive letter from NSA employee JA Meyer that they’re violating Federal Laws comparable to arms export – this raises the question, “Can the gov prevent academics from publishing on crypto?
1977 DES considered insecure
1977 First handheld electronic game
1977 RSA public key encryption invented
1978 McEliece Cryptosystem invented, first asymmetric encryption algorithm to use randomization in the encryption process
1980s Large data centers began being built to store files and give users a better faster experience – companies rented space from them - Data centers would not only store data but scour it to show people what they might want to see and in some cases, sell data
1980s Reaganomics and Thatcherism
1980 A decade of intense bank failures begins; the FDIC reports that 1,600 were either closed or received financial assistance from 1980 to 1994
1980 Chrysler Bailout – lost over $1 billion due to major hubris on the part of its executives - $1.5 billion one of the largest payouts ever made to a single corporation.
1980 Protocols for public key cryptosystems – Ralph Merkle
1980 Flash memory invented – public in ‘84
1981 “Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses and Digital Pseudonumns” – Chaum
1981 EFTPOS, Electronic funds transfer at point of sale is created
1981 IBM Personal Computer
1982 “The Ethics of Liberty” Murray Rothbard
1982 Commodore 64
1982 CD
1983 Satellite TV
1983 First built in hard drive
1983 C++
1983 Stereolithography
1983 Blind signatures for untraceable payments
Mid 1980s Use of ATMs becomes more widespread
1984 Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust bailed out due to overly aggressive lending styles and - the bank’s downfall could be directly traced to risk taking and a lack of due diligence on the part of bank officers - $9.5 billion in 2008 money
1984 Macintosh Computer - the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse
1984 CD Rom
1985 Zero-Knowledge Proofs first proposed
1985 300,000 simultaneous telephone conversations over single optical fiber
1985 Elliptic Curve Cryptography
1987 ARPANET had connected over 20k guarded computers by this time
1988 First private networks email servers connected to NSFNET
1988 The Crypto Anarchists Manifesto – Timothy C May
1988 ISDN, Integrated Services Digital Network
1989 Savings & Loan Bailout - After the widespread failure of savings and loan institutions, President George H. W. Bush signed and Congress enacted the Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act - This was a taxpayer bailout of about $200 billion
1989 First commercial emails sent
1989 Digicash - Chaum
1989 Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau built the prototype system which became the World Wide Web, WWW
1989 First ISPs – companies with no network of their own which connected people to a local network and to the internet - To connect to a network your computer placed a phone call through a modem which translated analog signals to digital signals – dial-up was used to connect computers as phone lines already had an extensive network across the U.S. – but phone lines weren’t designed for high pitched sounds that could change fast to transmit large amounts of data
1990s Cryptowars really heat up...
1990s Some countries started to change their laws to allow "truncation"
1990s Encryption export controls became a matter of public concern with the introduction of the personal computer. Phil Zimmermann's PGP cryptosystem and its distribution on the Internet in 1991 was the first major 'individual level' challenge to controls on export of cryptography. The growth of electronic commerce in the 1990s created additional pressure for reduced restrictions.[3] Shortly afterward, Netscape's SSL technology was widely adopted as a method for protecting credit card transactions using public key cryptography.
1990 NSFNET replaced Arpanet as backbone of the internet with more than 500k users
Early 90s Dial up provided through AOL and Compuserve
People were leery to use credit cards on the internet
1991 How to time-stamp a digital doc - Stornetta
1991 Phil Zimmermann releases the public key encryption program Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) along with its source code, which quickly appears on the Internet. He distributed a freeware version of PGP when he felt threatened by legislation then under consideration by the US Government that would require backdoors to be included in all cryptographic products developed within the US. Expanded the market to include anyone wanting to use cryptography on a personal computer (before only military, governments, large corporations)
1991 WWW (Tim Berners Lee) – made public in ‘93 – flatten the “tree” structure of the internet using hypertext – reason for HTTP//:WWW – LATER HTTPS for more security
1992 Erwise – first Internet Browser w a graphical Interface
1992 Congress passed a law allowing for commercial traffic on NSFNET
1992 Cpherpunks, Eric Hughes, Tim C May and John Gilmore – online privacy and safety from gov – cypherpunks write code so it can be spread and not shut down (in my earlier chapter)
1993 Mosaic – popularized surfing the web ‘til Netscape Navigator in ’94 – whose code was later used in Firefox
1993 A Cypherpunks Manifesto – Eric Hughes
1994 World’s first online cyberbank, First Virtual, opened for business
1994 Bluetooth
1994 First DVD player
1994 Stanford Federal Credit Union becomes the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994
1994 Internet only used by a few
1994 Cybercash
1994 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption protocol released by Netscape. Making financial transactions possible.
1994 One of the first online purchases was made, a Pizza Hut pepperoni pizza with mushrooms and extra cheese
1994 Cyphernomicon published – social implication where gov can’t do anything about it
1994-1999 Social Networking – GeoCities (combining creators and users) – had 19M users by ’99 – 3rd most popular after AOL and Yahoo – GeoCities purchased by Yahoo for $3.6B but took a hit after dotcom bubble popped and never recovered – GC shut down in ‘99
1995-2000 Dotcom bubble – Google, Amazon, Facebook: get over 600M visitors/year
1995 DVD
1995 MP3 term coined for MP3 files, the earlier development of which stretches back into the ‘70s, where MP files themselves where developed throughout the ‘90s
1995 NSFNET shut down and handed everything over to the ISPs
1995 NSA publishes the SHA1 hash algorithm as part of its Digital Signature Standard.
1996, 2000 President Bill Clinton signing the Executive order 13026 transferring the commercial encryption from the Munition List to the Commerce Control List. This order permitted the United States Department of Commerce to implement rules that greatly simplified the export of proprietary and open source software containing cryptography, which they did in 2000 - The successful cracking of DES likely helped gather both political and technical support for more advanced encryption in the hands of ordinary citizens - NSA considers AES strong enough to protect information classified at the Top Secret level
1996 e-gold
1997 WAP, Wireless Access Point
1997 NSA researchers published how to mint e cash
1997 Adam Back – HashCash – used PoW – coins could only be used once
1997 Nick Szabo – smart contracts “Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks”
1998 OSS, Open-source software Initiative Founded
1998 Wei Dai – B-money – decentralized database to record txs
1998 Bitgold
1998 First backdoor created by hackers from Cult of the Dead Cow
1998 Musk and Thiel founded PayPal
1998 Nick Szabo says crypto can protect land titles even if thugs take it by force – said it could be done with a timestamped database
1999 Much of the Glass-Steagal Act repealed - this saw US retail banks embark on big rounds of mergers and acquisitions and also engage in investment banking activities.
1999 Milton Friedman says, “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government. The one thing that's missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash - a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B without A knowing B or B knowing A.”
1999 European banks began offering mobile banking with the first smartphones
1999 The Financial Services Modernization Act Allows Banks to Grow Even Larger
Many economists and politicians have recognized that this legislation played a key part in the subprime mortgage crisis of 2007.
1999-2001 Napster, P2P file sharing – was one of the fastest growing businesses in history – bankrupt for paying musicians for copyright infringement

submitted by crypto_jedi_ninja to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Anyone thought about buying a Bitcoin ATM?

Has anyone looked into profits from buying a bitcoin ATM. I live in the UK where there isn't a great deal of bitcoin atms, they cost around £2,000 and i would have to come up with an agreement with a pub / shop to store my ATM. I feel that would be mutual beneficial due to the low numbers of ATM's in the UK (almost an attraction) and this would also allow people an easy route into the magical world of bitcoin which may increase popularity in England. Am i crazy?
submitted by AskyReddit to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

BCH bike rental

An idea I've got which could be a simple and fun way to use BCH. I'm in England so if anyone want to collaborate on this let me know. Anyway I thought the idea should be put out there, only in R and D phase right now
Borris bikes that are powered by bitcoin cash, people pay any amount of BCH to use bicycles in a town for a time period e.g. 0.004 bch for 1 hour. With a deposit people are incentivised to return bikes to rack
Difficulties: -council permission -bicycle or electric bicycle modification, how to stop malicious behaviour -lack of bch adoption, need ATM nearby.
How it works:
Bikes are in a numbered rack, plugged into a lock/data cable
Specific BCH address is assigned to each rack position.
At kiosk user selects bike number and pays for desired time and deposit (£15)
Bike unlocks and is used, when paid for time expires pedals lock but bike can still be pushed
User returns bike to any rack at any position and is refunded the deposit after plugging in lock.
If ATM is nearby they can choose to convert the deposit to cash or keep as BCH
submitted by ConalR to btc [link] [comments]

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Find Bitcoin ATM locations easily with our Bitcoin ATM Map. For many Bitcoin machines online rates are available. Producers. Genesis Coin (4080) General Bytes (3362) BitAccess (1106) Coinsource (731) Lamassu (543) All producers; Countries. United States (9178) Canada (920) United Kingdom (286) Austria (148) Spain (104) All countries ; More. Find bitcoin ATM near me; Submit new ATM; Submit ... You can buy Bitcoin at any CoinMover Bitcoin ATM throughout Massachusetts and now New Hampshire. In addition, you may also buy Litecoin (LTC), Etherum (ETH), and Dash (DASH). They are located in Gas Stations and Convenience Stores throughout the the two states. Click on a map marker below for more information about a particular location. As the digital currency industry continues to expand at ... Bitcoin ATM kiosks are machines which are connected to the Internet, allowing the insertion of cash or a credit card in exchange for Bitcoin. They look like traditional ATMs, but they do not connect to a bank account and instead connect the customer directly to a Bitcoin exchange for a localized and convenient way to purchase Bitcoin in person. Common locations for Bitcoin ATMs are inside of a ... Bitcoin ATMs – A Beginner’s Guide. By: Ofir Beigel Last updated: 5/4/20 Bitcoin ATMs allow the purchase and sale of Bitcoin with cash and with relative anonymity.In this post, I’ll cover the different ATMs around, their pros and cons and also show you how to find a Bitcoin ATM near your home. Bitcoin ATMs. Find a Bitcoin ATM in the UK to easily buy/sell cryptocurrencies, operated by Crypto de Change.

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bitcoin ATM travelersbox istanbul ataturk airport

World's second bitcoin ATM opens in İstanbul Atatürk Airport Turkish V.O. English Subtitles - Duration: 1:01. bitkoyun 7,979 views. 1:01. Bitcoin ATMs - How To Use Them - Duration: 5:09. ... In this video we show you how to withdraw money from an ATM. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/LegoBank Twitter: https://twitter.com/legobanktcs Instagram: ... Burglaries Here is a video of me using my newly delivered Crypterium crypto debit card in a regular UK ATM. I had loaded the card using BTC and I seamlessly was able to withdraw fiat currency using the ... I have check out local bitcoin ATM machine in London. We can buy and sell BITCOIN, DASH AND LITECOIN for cash through this ATM. BITCOIN ATM LONDON BITCOIN AT...

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